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The Risks of Acupuncture

| Articles | April 30, 2011

If you are one of the traditional skeptics of the acupuncture therapy then you are definitely not alone. Because acupuncture has not been embraced wholly by any parts of Western society, members of America and others in the West remain skeptical at least, and hopeful at best, at the therapy of acupuncture that has been claimed by Chinese culture to be the miracle cure of all cures for all things that attack the body. Even though acupuncture may be great for those in Chinese cultures where this process of medication and healing is still routinely sought after and practiced today, there are real and definite risks of acupuncture that must be spoken out about.

Acupuncture Risk #1: Accidental Shared Needles

The first thing that one needs to be on the lookout for if he or she insists on using acupuncture for his or her main bodily therapy is the fact that accidents are always happening and can even happen in the acupuncture field. Many people claim that some of the accidents in acupuncture therapy may arise when there are the accidental incidents of sharing of needles. These occasions may not, and probably do not, happen on purpose, though. However, the sharing of needles may take place when one session of acupuncture ends and other one begins right after. Not all of the needles may get thrown away for one reason or another and then they may be accidentally re-used on the next person. Of course, everyone should know that this is very dangerous and should never be done, but it is just one of the many risks associated with acupuncture therapy.

Acupuncture Risk #2: Pricking of the Body

Another risk that one needs to consider before delving into the practice of acupuncture is the fact that many people are able to be pricked so easily by the jabbing of needles. Even though practitioners of acupuncture usually take very good care not to injure anyone when performing the actual therapy, as mentioned earlier accidents can always happen for the first time. But I’m sure that the stabbing of individuals due to the sharpness of the acupuncture needles is not the first time the issue has come up. Needless to say, the pricking of the body by acupuncture needles should be just another concern on the acupuncture list.

Acupuncture Risk #3: Getting Treated

Even though getting treated by acupuncture should not be feared by any means, it is precisely who is treating you that should be feared. With all the identity thefts and deceitful things that now routinely go on in the United States, there is nothing from stopping someone from just acting like they know how to perform acupuncture therapy. Furthermore, even though somebody says that they are certified, how often does one truly scrutinize the accreditation documents that are shown to them?

All of these things are risks associated with having acupuncture therapy done, and all that needs to be done is a little due diligence to make sure everything is okay. Even though acupuncture is not a bad therapy in itself, there are always the bad eggs that’ll spoil the whole batch!

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The Relevance Of Sustainable Agriculture

| Articles | April 29, 2011

Food shortage has already been a major problem in a global sense especially for developing countries. These developing countries solely rely on the products of agriculture in their land so the destruction of such means no income and no food for them. However it even gets worse as the global population increases each day, and thus results to the increasing demand for food supply.

Since agriculture has been steadily degrading over the years, such focus of food supplement cannot be fully met. Hence, the idea of sustainable agriculture comes into the picture. Basically, it is the idea of having to produce enough resources for the present generation without compromising that of which the future generation will have.

Economic Profitability of Products

Sustainable agriculture is a very ideal concept which essentially has three main folds: economical profitability, social participation and environmental health. These three folds serve as the basis for the success and failure of sustainable agriculture. Without the full participation of one fold, the other two cannot work just as well. It is important that with sustainable agriculture, these three folds are campaigned to people and are made to grow and develop into the society. The first aspect is economical profitability which means that through sustainable agriculture it is important that its products and raw materials can gain high profitability in the market. Clearly, having good quality products mean that the country can finally compete in a global market and thus bring more income and livelihood for its fellow countrymen.

Social Participation: Emancipating Hope For Agriculture

The second aspect of sustainable agriculture is the social participation of the people. However, this aspect is not only made up of the common people, but also of the government. With these two participants combined, then sustainable agriculture can be supported in many areas of the country. The government can take part in the action through implementing different laws and reforms that ban certain human interventions in the arable land.

Also, these laws can acts as restrictions for people who desire to destroy these lands for personal profit and gain. With the social awareness of the people particularly the community, then they can act as the stewards who make sure that their land is being taken care of. With the simultaneous action of these two aspects, then the land meant for agriculture can be kept safe and fertile.

Environmental Health and Stewardship

The third aspect of sustainable agriculture is the environmental health. This is also a very important part of sustainable agriculture since we truly have to solve the crisis of the degrading productivity of the land. With all of the human interventions being made with the land, such as excessive tillage, use of destructible chemicals and such, the land is then left without the capacity to sustain its productivity.

Really, it is important that we sustain the land that gives us nourishment and health so that the future generation can still benefit from it. This is simply the right time to implement sustainable agriculture in different parts of the world to solve the crisis of food shortage and to further help the land become sustainable.

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The Random Re-Boot Problem

| Articles | April 28, 2011

You may have experienced your computer intermittently re-booting for no apparent reason. This can be annoying, and can mean you have lost valuable work that you we in the process of creating.

If this has happened once, then your chances of explaining the cause are remote in the extreme. If you find it happening regularly, then it is clearly in your interest to find and fix the problem.

There may be a simple explanation. With most modern computers, the system comes with built in circuitry to monitor the state of the computer. One of the checks built into your system include testing the power supply levels. The power supply is not a component most people expect to fail. Most are concerned that their disk drives will be the major cause of failures, but in fact power supply problems are relatively common.

The power supply will communicate to the mother board with a power good signal if the power output is within specification. If this power good signal is not present, the computer will simply not start up. This seems simple enough, however things do not always fit into the good or not good categories. Where you have a power supply that is failing, its outputs can fluctuate. The computer may then boot up correctly, but a little later when the power supply falls out of range the computer will detect this and activate the reset logic. The reset logic shuts the machine down, thus relieving the load on the power supply, which can then support a re-boot. It is the same as if you pushed the reset button yourself, but it appears to you as a random re-boot.

To test the power outputs, you really need access to a multimeter, and know how to use it. This might be something you may prefer to leave to an experienced technician. Alternatively, you can try replacing the power supply with a spare that you know to be working. If this corrects the intermittent re-boot, then you have solved the problem

When replacing a power supply, select a known brand, and I suggest you choose one that is rated to at least 400 watts. This, of course, depends on what load your computer is supporting. Upgrading to a faster processor, installing additional or faster disk drives, or adding other devices can all add to your computer’s power requirements.

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The Random Hang-up Problem

| Articles | April 27, 2011

You may have experienced having your computer intermittently hangs-up, or may re-boot itself for no apparent reason. This can be annoying, and can mean you have lost valuable work that you we in the process of creating.

If this has happened once, then your chances of explaining the cause are remote in the extreme. If you find it happening regularly, then it is clearly in your interest to find and fix the problem.

There are a few things you can check for yourself that may save you a trip to the repair shop.

With most modern computers, the system comes with built in circuitry to monitor the state of the computer. One of the checks built into your system is to test the operating temperature. The computer may shut down if this moves outside the desirable operating range.

For your system to run at the correct operating temperature it is important that air circulates freely in and around the case. If you have the computer case installed inside an enclosure, then this may be the first thing to consider changing. Similarly, I have seen computers covered with books, manuals and paper documents. These again can hinder air circulation, and these items should be removed. Take a look at the slotted vents in the sides of the case. These slots can become blocked by an accumulation of dust. Because the computer is usually always drawing some power, it has a constant electrostatic charge. A computer is second only to a vacuum cleaner in its ability to suck in dust and fluff.

Taking the cover of the case will also show the dust build-up inside the computer. Be careful removing dust accumulations from internal components. This is probably best done with a soft artist’s brush or an aerosol can of compressed air.

Next, take a look at the internal cooling fans. Modern computer usually have a cooling fan perched on top of the processor. This fan should be clear of dust, and running freely, without obvious scraping noises, when the computer is operating. It is OK to start the computer with the case cover removed, just be careful not to poke things into the various components. There will also be a cooling fan inside or attached to the power supply. This again should be free of dust and running freely. Some computers may also have an additional case fan. This will be screwed on over one of the slotted case vents, and typically be running from a cable connected to the mother board. Not all machines have a separate case fan, but if it is there, it is there for a reason. Apply the same checks to this fan.

If you have identified faults with your cooling fans, this may require a trip to your local repair shop. The repair technician may also suggest that the CPU heat sink be removed and re-placed with fresh heat transfer compound, which is a straightforward job for an experienced repairer.

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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SINGLES AND DOUBLES IN TENNIS.

| Articles | April 26, 2011

Singles, the greatest strain in tennis, is the game for two players. It is in this phase of the game that the personal equation reaches its crest of importance. This is the game of individual effort, mental and physical.

A hard 5-set singles match is the greatest strain on the body and nervous system of any form of sport. Singles is a game of daring, dash, speed of foot and stroke. It is a game of chance far more than doubles. Since you have no partner dependent upon you, you can afford to risk error for the possibility of speedy victory. Much of what I wrote under match play is more for singles than doubles, yet let me call your attention to certain peculiarities of singles from the standpoint of the spectator.

A gallery enjoys personalities far more than styles. Singles brings two people into close and active relations that show the idiosyncrasies of each player far more acutely than doubles. The spectator is in the position of a man watching an insect under a microscope. He can analyse the inner workings.

The freedom of restraint felt on a single court is in marked contrast to the need for team work in doubles. Go out for your shot in singles whenever there is a reasonable chance of getting it. Hit harder at all times in singles than in doubles, for you have more chance of scoring and can take more risk.

Singles is a game of the imagination, doubles a science of exact angles.

Doubles is four-handed tennis. Enough of this primary reader definition.

It is just as vital to play to your partner in tennis as in bridge. Every time you make a stroke you must do it with a definite plan to avoid putting your partner in trouble. The keynote of doubles success is team work; not individual brilliancy. There is a certain type of team work dependent wholly upon individual brilliancy. Where both players are in the same class, a team is as strong as its weakest player at any given time, for here it is even team work with an equal division of the court that should be the method of play. In the case of one strong player and one weaker player, the team is as good as the strong player can make it by protecting and defending the weaker. This pair should develop its team work on the individual brilliancy of the stronger man.

The first essential of doubles play is to PUT the ball in play. A double fault is bad in singles, but it is inexcusable in doubles. The return of service should be certain. After that it should be low and to the server coming in. Do not strive for clean aces in doubles until you have the opening. Remember that to pass two men is a difficult task.

Always attack in doubles. The net is the only place in the court to play the doubles game, and you should always strive to attain the net position. I believe in always trying for the kill when you see a real opening. “Poach” (go for a shot which is not really on your side of the court) whenever you see a chance to score. Never poach unless you go for the kill. It is a win or nothing shot since it opens your whole court. If you are missing badly do not poach, as it is very disconcerting to your partner.

The question of covering a doubles court should not be a serious one. With all men striving to attain the net all the time every shot should be built up with that idea. Volley and smash whenever possible, and only retreat when absolutely necessary.

When the ball goes toward the side-line the net player on that side goes in close and toward the line. His partner falls slightly back and to the centre of the court, thus covering the shot between the men. If the next return goes to the other side, the two men reverse positions. The theory of court covering is two sides of a triangle, with the angle in the centre and the two sides running to the side-lines and in the direction of the net.

Each man should cover overhead balls over his own head, and hit them in the air whenever possible, since to allow them to drop gives the net to the other team. The only time for the partner to protect the overhead is when the net man “poaches,” is outguessed, and the ball tossed over his head. Then the server covers and strives for a kill at once.

Always be ready to protect your partner, but do not take shots over his head unless he calls for you to, or you see a certain kill. Then say “Mine,” step in and hit decisively. The matter of overhead balls, crossing under them, and such incidentals of team work are matters of personal opinion, and should be arranged by each team according to their joint views. I only offer general rules that can be modified to meet the wishes of the individuals.

Use the lob as a defence, and to give time to extricate yourself and your partner from a bad position. The value of service in doubles cannot be too strongly emphasized since it gives the net to the server. Service should always be held. To lose service is an unpardonable sin in first-class doubles. All shots in doubles should be low or very high. Do not hit shoulder-high as it is too easy to kill. Volley down and hard if possible. Every shot you make should be made with a definite idea of opening the court.

Hit down the centre to disrupt the team work of the opposing team; but hit to the side-lines for your aces.

Pick one man, preferably the weaker of your opponents, and centre your attack on him and keep it there. Pound him unmercifully, and in time he should crack under the attack. It is very foolish to alternate attack, since it simply puts both men on their game and tires neither.

If your partner starts badly play safely and surely until he rounds to form. Never show annoyance with your partner. Do not scold him. He is doing the best he can, and fighting with him does no good. Encourage him at all times and don’t worry. A team that is fighting among themselves has little time left to play tennis, and after all tennis is the main object of doubles.

Offer suggestions to your partner at any time during a match; but do not insist on his following them, and do not get peevish if he doesn’t. He simply does not agree with you, and he may be right. Who knows?

Every doubles team should have a leader to direct its play; but that leader must always be willing to drop leadership for any given point when his partner has the superior position. It is policy of attack not type of stroke that the leader should determine.

Pick a partner and stick to him. He should be a man you like and want to play with, and he should want to play with you. This will do away with much friction. His style should not be too nearly your own, since you double the faults without greatly increasing the virtues.

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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PHYSICAL FITNESS.

| Articles | April 25, 2011

Physical fitness is one of the great essentials of match play. Keenness can only be acquired if the physical, mental, and nervous systems are in tune. Consistent and systematic training is essential to a tournament player.

Regular hours of sleep, and regular, hearty food at regular hours are necessary to keep the body at its highest efficiency. Food is particularly important. Eat well, but do not over-eat, particularly immediately before playing. I believe in a large hearty breakfast on the day of a big match. This should be taken by nine-thirty. A moderate lunch at about one o’clock if playing at three. Do not eat very rich food at luncheon as it tends to slow you up on the court. Do not run the risk of indigestion, which is the worst enemy to dear eyesight. Rich, heavy food immediately before retiring is bad, as it is apt to make you “loggy” on the court the next day.

It is certain injury to touch alcoholic drink in any form during tournament play. Alcohol is a poison that affects the eye, the mind, and the wind three essentials in tennis. Tobacco in moderation does little harm, although it, too, hits eye and wind. A man who is facing a long season of tournament play should refrain from either alcohol or tobacco in any form. Excesses of any kind are bad for physical condition, and should not be chanced.

“Staleness” is the great enemy of players who play long seasons. It is a case of too much tennis. Staleness is seldom physical weariness. A player can always recover his strength by rest. Staleness is a mental fatigue due often to worry or too close attention to tennis, and not enough variety of thought. Its symptoms are a dislike for the tennis game and its surroundings, and a lack of interest in the match when you are on the court. I advocate a break in training at such a time. Go to the theatre or a concert, and get your mind completely off tennis. Do your worrying about tennis while you are playing it, and forget the unpleasantness of bad play once you are off the court. Always have some outside interest you can turn to for relaxation during a tournament; but never allow it to interfere with your tennis when you should be intent on your game. A nice balance is hard to achieve, but, once attained is a great aid to a tournament player.

The laws of training should be closely followed before and after a match. Do not get chilled before a match, as it makes you stiff and slow. Above all else do not stand around without a wrap after a match when you are hot or you will catch cold.

Many a player has acquired a touch of rheumatism from wasting time at the close of his match instead of getting his shower while still warm. That slight stiffness the next day may mean defeat. A serious chill may mean severe illness. Do not take chances.

Change your wet clothes to dry ones between matches if you are to play twice in a day. It will make you feel better, and also avoid the risk of cold.

Tournament players must sacrifice some pleasures for the sake of success. Training will win many a match for a man if he sticks to it. Spasmodic training is useless, and should never be attempted.

The condition a player is, in is apt to decide his mental viewpoint, and aid him in accustoming himself to the external conditions of play.

All match players should know a little about the phenomenon of crowd-psychology since, as in the case of the Church-Murray match I related some time back, the crowd may play an important part in the result.

It seldom pays to get a crowd down on you. It always pays to win its sympathy. I do not mean play to the gallery, for that will have the opposite effect than the one desired.

The gallery is always for the weaker player. It is a case of helping the “under-dog.” If you are a consistent winner you must accustom yourself to having the gallery show partiality for your opponent. It is no personal dislike of you. It is merely a natural reaction in favour of the loser. Sometimes a bad decision to one play will win the crowd’s sympathy for him. Galleries are eminently just in their desires, even though at times their emotions run away with them.

Quite aside from the effect on the gallery, I wish to state here that when you are the favoured one in a decision that you know is wrong, strive to equalize it if possible by unostentatiously losing the next point. Do not hit the ball over the back stop or into the bottom of the net with a jaunty air of “Here you are.” Just hit it slightly out or in the net, and go on about your business in the regular way. Your opponent always knows when you extend him this justice, and he appreciates it, even though he does not expect it. Never do it for effect. It is extremely bad taste. Only do it when your sense of justice tells you you should.

The crowd objects, and justly so, to a display of real temper on the court. A player who loses his head must expect a poor reception from the gallery. Questioned decisions by a player only put him in a bad light with the crowd and cannot alter the point. You may know the call was wrong, but grin at it, and the crowd will join you. These things are the essence of good sportsmanship, and good sportsmanship will win any gallery. The most unattractive player in the world will win the respect and admiration of a crowd by a display of real sportsmanship at the time of test.

Any player who really enjoys a match for the game’s sake will always be a fine sportsman, for there is no amusement to a match that does not give your opponent his every right. A player who plays for the joy of the game wins the crowd the first time he steps on the court. All the world loves an optimist.

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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MATCH PLAY IN TENNIS.

| Articles | April 24, 2011

The first and most important point in match play is to know how to lose. Lose cheerfully, generously, and like a sportsman. This is the first great law of tennis, and the second is like unto it to win modestly, cheerfully, generously, and like a sportsman.

The object of match play is to win, but no credit goes to a man who does not win fairly and squarely. A victory is a defeat if it is other than fair. Yet again I say to win is the object, and to do so, one should play to the last ounce of his strength, the last gasp of his breath, and the last scrap of his nerve. If you do so and lose, the better man won. If you do not, you have robbed your opponent of his right of beating your best. Be fair to both him and yourself.

“The Play’s the thing,” and in match play a good defeat is far more creditable than a hollow victory. Play tennis for the game’s sake. Play it for the men you meet, the friends you make, and the pleasure you may give to the public by the hard working yet sporting game that is owed them by their presence at the match.

Many tennis players feel they owe the public nothing, and are granting a favour by playing. It is my belief that when the public so honours a player that they attend matches, that player is in duty bound to give of his best, freely, willingly, and cheerfully, for only by so doing can he repay the honour paid him. The tennis star of today owes his public as much as the actor owes the audience, and only by meeting his obligations can tennis be retained in public favour. The players get their reward in the personal popularity they gain by their conscientious work.

There is another factor that is even stronger than this, that will always produce fine tennis in championship events. It is the competitive spirit that is the breath of life to every true sportsman: the desire to prove to himself he can beat the best of the other man; the real regret that comes when he wins, and feels the loser was not at his best.

The keen competitive spirit that stimulates a match player also increases the nervous strain. This should be recognized by tournament committees, and the conditions of play should be as nearly standardized as weather permits.

The first thing to fix firmly in your mind in playing a match, is never to allow your opponent to play a shot he likes if it is possible to force him to make one he does not. Study your opponent both on and off the court. Look for a weakness, and, once finding it, pound it without mercy. Remember that you do not decide your mode of attack. It is decided for you by the weakness of your opponent. If he dislikes to meet a netman, go to the net. If he wants you at the net, stay back and force him to come in. If he attacks viciously, meet his attack with an equally strong offensive.

Remember that the strongest defence is to attack, for if the other man is occupied in meeting your attack, he will have less time to formulate his own system.

If you are playing a very steady man, do not strive to beat him at his own game. He is better at it than you in many cases, so go in and hit to win. On the other hand, if you find that your opponent is wild and prone to miss, play safe and reap the full crop of his errors. It saves you trouble and takes his confidence.

Above all, never change a winning game.

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Always change a losing game, since, as you are getting beaten that way, you are no worse off and may be better with a new style.

The question of changing a losing game is a very serious thing. It is hard to say just when you are really beaten. If you feel you are playing well yet have lost the first set about 3-6 or 4-6, with the loss of only one service, you should not change. Your game is not really a losing game. It is simply a case of one break of service, and might well win the next set. If, however, you have dropped the first set in a 2 out of 3 match with but one or two games, now you are outclassed and should try something else.

Take chances when you are behind, never when ahead. Risks are only worth while when you have everything to win and nothing to lose. It may spell victory, and at least will not hasten defeat. Above all, never lose your nerve or confidence in a match. By so doing you have handed your opponent about two points a game a rather hard handicap to beat at your best.

Never let your opponent know you are worried. Never show fatigue or pain if it is possible to avoid, since it will only give him confidence. Remember that he feels just as bad as you, and any sign of weakening on your part encourages him to go on. In other words, keep your teeth always in the match.

Don’t worry. Don’t fuss. Luck evens up in the long run, and to worry only upsets your own game without affecting your opponent. A smile wins a lot of points because it gives the impression of confidence on your part that shakes that of the other man. Fight all the time. The harder the strain the harder you should fight, but do it easily, happily, and enjoy it.

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The Pros And Cons Of Reverse Osmosis

| Articles | April 23, 2011

Reverse osmosis (also called R/O) is one of today’s very timely technological breakthroughs: producing fresh, clear water from contaminated water or those with impurities that cannot be taken out by even the finest filters. Of course, as in all things, there are pros and cons of the idea of reverse osmosis.

Basically, the process is simply forcing contaminated water through a semi-porous membrane and filtering out organic compounds such as salts and other minerals, chemicals, dyes, sugar, many other TDS (total dissolved solids) thereby producing fresh and clean water ready for use again.

Using the reverse process of the natural osmosis, R/O technology is now used in homes and offices, as well as by big industries. So far, this process is now the world’s leading technology in the treatment of contaminated water and makes it clean and safe for human use again.

Advantages

Because it eliminates 95 to 99% of TDS (total dissolved solids), reverse osmosis is the best technology today for getting clean water free of contaminants.

R/O systems remove salt, dissolved minerals, nitrates, pesticides, metals, and microorganisms from the water. The system is also effective in treating water for health contaminants like asbestos, arsenic, some pesticides, fluoride, lead, mercury and radium. Removing them gives back the sparkling appearance and taste of water.

Today, R/O systems provide such diverse uses as drinking water, rinse water, car wash water reclamation, pharmaceutical production, ice-making, laboratory and other biomedical applications, farming, and providing clean water to so many other industries that use it.

In fact, one pundit says R/O provides water for the kitchen counter in a private home as well as water for use in space.

What makes it also ideal is the fact that installation costs are low, has very minimal use of chemicals, and with the construction using low-maintenance, non-metallic materials. The technology is also used right now in removing organic and inorganic contaminants from water.

Disadvantages

The R/O process, however, have some several downsides.

Despite their effectiveness, the R/O membranes are susceptible to loss of function. Due to the size, shape, and the amount of contaminants present, a buildup of materials might disable the membrane’s functions. Also, the widely-used disinfectant chlorine can attack the membrane.

The small pores of the membrane block particles of large molecules but some pesticides and chlorine are molecularly smaller than water and can pass through. This is why carbon filters must be used as supplement to the R/O process because it can remove chlorine in the water.

Another drawback to the R/O process in purifying water is the fact that it blocks and removes healthy, naturally-occurring minerals in the water. These trace minerals helps provide the natural taste of water and they may be of vital use to the body.

The process wastes a large portion of water, around two to three gallons, for every gallon of purified water it produces. Moreover, the technology needs a reliable energy source and a good spare parts inventory (if it is foreign-made).

The process is slow compared to other water treatment alternatives, requiring a holding tank so that supply is assured during peak use.

The membranes used in R/O are sensitive to abuse. The feedwater usually needs pre-treatment to remove solid particulates. Presence of particulates cuts short the life span of the membranes.

However one may look at the pros and cons of reverse osmosis, one may conclude that until a better, foolproof technology of water treatment comes around, reverse osmosis is still the best technique there is today.

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The Profound Effect of the Past on the Present Make Seattle Great

| Articles | April 22, 2011

One thing I have found amazing about visiting Seattle, Washington is the fact that almost everywhere you look in this city, there is something of historical significance very nearby. I find it amazing that a city that has become a beacon of promise for the future has such strong ties to its past. Of course, this is the way it should be, but seldom is.

Seattle, Washington not only celebrates its past that is very rich indeed, it invites those who visit to share in that celebration as well. With many museums dedicated to lifting up the great people who helped build this city. A city that remembers its past is a city well worth getting to know better.

In and around Seattle there are several museums that study the past of this part of the country and the profound effect that that past has on the present society in this area. The first one I will tell you about is not a museum but rather a national park. This would be the Klondike Gold Rush National Park. Some of the more interesting things to do and see here are the walking tours that are conducted each morning during summer months (these tours last about an hour and take you through the historic district while explaining the role the neighborhood played in the development of Seattle as we have come to know it and the Klondike Gold Rush). Another interesting thing to do is attend a gold panning demonstration or watch one of the many audiovisual programs that tells stories of this historic period.

Next, there is the Log House Museum of Seattle. This museum is actually a renovated log home that has a rich history in and of itself. The museum was created as a base for sharing information about the history of the community both oral and written in addition to educating students, researchers, and educators about the history of this region. The museum provides special exhibits, events, and lectures that accomplish these goals. Admission is by donation and is recommended at $2 per adult and $1 per child.

Next, for every little boy or every little boy that is all grown up, this next museum is near and dear to most of their hearts whether they are willing to admit it or not. This would be the Issaquah Depot Museum. Not only do you get to walk along the tracks of history, but also you get to take a look at a vintage caboose and other train cars that are on display here. There is a beautiful mural in the Depot Freight Room that depicts the history of Issaquah. It was painted by Bill Haddon at the request of the King County Arts Commission and vividly depicts the colorful history of this area. Admission to this museum is recommended at $2 per adult and $1 per child or you can purchase a family pass for this and the Gillman Town Hall Museum for a total of $10.

The Gillman Town Hall Museum brings history to life by showing the minor details that are often overlooked and yet so vitally important reminders of that history. There is even an old two-cell jail behind the Town Hall Museum. The original steel bars are on the window and the total escape count from this jail was zero. Not only is this museum filled with artifacts, but it personalized with photographs of the people that played such a vital role in its past as well. This museum and the Depot museum are worth the drive from Seattle, especially at such low prices for both.

If nothing else, you have to hand it to the people of this part of the country. They hold onto their pasts and learn from them rather than burying them and trying to pretend they didn’t happen. I find it comforting to see that the past of this area has had such a profound effect on what it has become today and hope to see even better things in the future as a result. If nothing else, the stories are wonderful to hear and even better to experience.

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The phases of Memory

| Articles | April 21, 2011

Memory is the retention of information over a period of time through storage, encoding, and retrieval. For something to be considered memory, you have to take it in, store it, and then retrieve it for use in the future. Memory is a very complex things and it can let you down sometime especially when our trying to remember something, especially during an important test in your life. Also memory can also cause some confusion, especially when two people experience different events. For example, if two friends went on a trip and one said scenario A happened while the other says that scenario B happened then It could lead to lots of confusion. I think it’s fair to say that most individuals have experienced frustrations when they can’t recall someone’s name or a place that they visit. It’s obvious that memory is not installed like data is in a computer; human memory is a little more concrete. The initial stage of memory is known as encoding, in which the information is processed for storage. When you are listening to music, or watching television you are encoding information into memory. Some data gets into memory practically effortlessly, while other requires some extensive time to get in there. How information gets stored into data is an interest in psychologist because it tends to vary from individual to individual. When we start encoding we use selective attention which means that we focus on a specific situation while ignoring everything else. It’s like showing undivided attention to a specific factor. Although our brain is magnificent, and is more powerful than a super computer it does has its limits, and it can’t pay attention to everything at once. Divided attention also has an impact on memory, which means that people try to pay attention to too many different things at once. When researchers measure divided attention they have participants to try and remember a list of materials, but they are asked to perform an additional task at the same time. Participants that focus their attention on one single event as opposed to trying and remember numerous of things simultaneously perform a lot better. However simply paying attention to something does not guarantee success with remembering it. Encoding is processed in three different levels. Levels of processing is known as encoding information from shallow to deep and the deeper processing produce better results than the shallow.

* Shallow level: Includes the sensory or physical characteristics of stimuli that are analyzed. For example, we might detect some shapes of printed characters, or detect the pitch of a particular sound.

* Intermediate level: The stimulus is recognized and is given a distinct label. For example, we will identify an object that drives on the road as a car.

* Deepest Level: Includes information that is processed semantically which means in terms of its meaning. When we get to the deepest level we make associations with things which mean that we are more likely to remember it in the future.

Time after time it seems that people memories improve when they make associations to stimuli that are used in deep processing as opposed to tuning into just the physical characteristics. For example, you are more likely to remember someone face if you make some type of association with it as opposed to remembering how the people look. You could attach a meaning to it or correlate the individual to a famous person. Likewise you could associate a famous individual with a friend of yours not is not a celebrity by any means. Next, cognitive psychologists or the psychologists that studies the thinking process realize that there is more to memory than just deep processing. There’re a lot of layers of memory so to speak. While were still on the topic of deep processing, the more extensive the processing, the better you will remember something. Elaboration is defined as the extensiveness of processing at any level. Rather then just remembering a definition, you should come up with a deep concept of the word by thinking of examples that relate to the word his is a strategy that is used often of Kaplan’s Sat flashcards. On the front it has the word, and on the back it has the definition followed by a sentence that uses the definition properly. The primarily reason that elaboration is so successful is because it helps makes something distinct in your mind. Just think of an event that you remembered in your life. A one that I think that affects people living today is the World Trade Center event. Most people most likely remember where they were and how they first heard the news. The people that were in the event and survived most likely have a hard time forgetting about the event and can most likely remember the sounds and all of the imagery very clearly. Speaking of seeing things clearly, imagery is a very important aspect of memory. To make memories extremely powerful it is important to use mental imagery. An example of using mental imagery is remembering where you placed your remote control once you finished watching television last night. Some psychologists believed that using mental imagery is so powerful, because people will tend to remember images more then words. It has been proven that images can help individuals learn a foreign language. However, how intricate storage is just don’t determine how well it will get encoded. Storage refers to the ways that information stays in storage for a long period of time. We remember some information for years, and some we forget within a minute or possibly less. Sensory memory is a type of memory that holds information in a sensory form for an instant. It is extremely high in detail but the information is quickly loss. Think of the sounds you hear when you’re getting out of the car, or the sound of a bird singing. These are some common examples of sensory memory. Next, short term memory is information that is usually contained in storage for 30 seconds, or less there are some other strategies used to keep it in storage longer. Some ways that you can improve short term memory is by chunking and reversal. We all probably have experienced with rehearsal which is the repetition of something, usually a number. If we have to remember a telephone number then an easy way to do this is to keep repeating the number. Likewise you can try and remember long numbers by chunking them. For example, look at this number and turn away and try to repeat it. The number is 7835677876. How did you do? Don’t feel too bad if you did poorly. However, you could have done better if you’re chunked or grouped the numbers together. For example rather than trying to remember this big blob of 7835677876, you can chunk in into 783-567-7876. Well, look at what we got it looks similar to a phone number. This is an example of how chunking can b helpful in helping individuals remembers content.

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